The right tire pressure extends their life, reduces fuel consumption and increases safety. Based on the information provided by the RPM or tire pressure sensors, the ECU can detect whether the wheel is turning faster at the same speed. If so, it is clear that the pressure is too low and that the tire tread circumference, ie. tire circumference reduced. The indicator light turns on, indicating that the tires need to be refilled.
TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System) is an electronic system that monitors tire pressure and instantly warns the driver if a malfunction occurs, with the help of warning lights on the instrument panel.
There are two types of tire pressure monitoring systems.
Car manufacturers can choose between a direct and indirect TPMS tire pressure control system. With a direct system, each wheel has a sensor that transmits tire pressure, temperature and other relevant factors to the instrument panel. The direct pressure control system alerts the driver when the tire pressure drops more than 20 percent below the set value or when it falls below 1,5 bar. Usually the direct TPMS also shows which tire does not have enough air, but this depends on the car model.
The indirect pressure control system is not as accurate as the direct one and only displays data when the car is moving, because the measurement results are obtained based on the speed of the wheel provided ABS system. Indirect TPMS therefore cannot display the exact tire pressure. The car manufacturer decides which system to install.
Sensor in tire
This is a new tire-fitted system that sends temperature and pressure data to your vehicle, or even your smartphone, wirelessly.
Sensor on valve
This sensor is integrated into the valve. It sends the data wirelessly to the vehicle-mounted screen. It runs on batteries lasting five to seven years.
The sensor is placed on the edge of the wheel with a metal strip. This solution is not used often because the sensor is subject to damage at that point,
Measurement with ABS sensor
In this case, the ABS sensor information is used which, among other things, calculates the wheel speed. When the tire loses pressure, the wheel speed increases.
An intelligent tire system allows our tires to communicate with vehicle electronics. Drivers thus receive a constant flow of information about all tires directly in the cab. In addition to pressure and temperature information, the tire modules can also transmit some other data to the vehicle electronics. In this way, they have a favorable effect on driving characteristics and driving comfort.
The TPMS (Tire Pressure Control System) measures the pressure level directly. It consists of a central receiver (that is, a data transmitter) and four optional modules. The modules measure the current pressure in the tire, taking into account the tire temperatures. The tire position is determined automatically by the Electronic Brake System (EBS). The instrument panel display alerts the driver to excessive tire pressure.
It is still uncertain which of the two systems will prevail. In the United States, where such regulations have been in place for some time, immediate systems are more in use. Expert bodies assume that 70% of all new vehicles will have an immediate TMPS system in the future. However, the law is technology neutral, that is, there are no provisions governing the use of a direct or indirect TPMS.
The mandatory tire pressure monitoring system greatly increases the level of safety, but thus also replacing tires at home becomes more complicated. Therefore, the tire service should replace the tires.
The sensors of the tire pressure control system (TPMS) do not last forever, and should be replaced periodically. Tire industry experts estimate the life of these sensors from 5 to 10 years. The problems with the sensors are also the damage to the sensors during the improper, clumsy, mounting of the new tire on the wheels. When replacing a new tire or rim, the tire pressure control sensor should be fitted, possibly replaced, the warning light switched off or the sensor parameters adjusted, which requires expertise and complicates tire replacement.
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