Torque - What is torque used for?


What is torque?

Torque is the product of the value of the force generated by the pressure of the piston gases and the crankshaft length. It follows that the value of the moment depends largely on the force affecting the piston. Despite more than 100 years of tradition in the production of internal combustion engines, it is still not possible to obtain the perfect curve on a graph illustrating the flow Newton meters. Nevertheless, engineers use intake manifolds with variable characteristics, variable valve opening times, as well as superchargers in the form of turbochargers or compressors. This last solution is best for engine dynamics.

How does torque vary depending on the engine? What determines torque?

The torque curve strongly depends on the type of drive unit. For petrol engines, the value of Nm is the least favorable. In most cases the amount of Nm is in the range of 120-200. In addition, maximum torque is available in a very narrow speed range. Their number increases in proportion to the value of the engine speed. This means that we have the maximum power for use from 5000 to 6000 rpm.

The situation is quite different in modern, turbocharged engines. Already one liter engine supported by a turbocharger can generate 160-200 Nm. While the "turbo-hole" phenomenon still occurs at low crankshaft speeds, at 3-5 thousand rpm we have a maximum number of Nm. This achieves significant vehicle dynamics and the car responds briskly to any pressure on the accelerator pedal.

The larger the engine volume and the amount of air injected through the turbocharger, the more Nm can be obtained. No wonder 3-liter engines backed by two or even four turbochargers manage to reach 700-800 Nm at very low speeds.

Diesel Engine Torque

Equally advantageous is the graphical representation of torque in diesel units. While those from 2-3 decades ago, devoid of turbines, are characterized by poor dynamics, modern air filling matches the performance of sports gasoline structures. In addition, they are capable of producing high torque with relatively small volume. 1.4-1.6-liter engines provide the user with approximately 250-300 Nm in the range of 1500-3500 rpm. As with supercharged gasoline engines, the larger engine volume translates into greater torque value.

Not surprisingly, diesel engines are most commonly used in heavy vehicles and construction machines. In their case, power is not in the forefront, but in the moment. In combination with a suitable gearbox it contributes significantly to the transport capabilities of the machine. The high torque value obtained at low rpm enables towing trailers of several tons, as well as overcoming difficult obstacles in the field.

Torque - what to look for?

When deciding on a particular vehicle, it's worth taking a look at its technical data. The torque value and the range at which it is obtained are more important than its maximum power. The higher the torque available over a wider range, the greater the enjoyment of the car. High Nm is also emergency safety, where you need to accelerate or perform a sudden maneuver by pushing the accelerator pedal to the floor.


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