Exhaust as a generator
One way to increase car economy is to reduce losses. Currently, exhaust gases are a net loss, because so far no one has used their heat, nor the pressure under which it is
Recently, testing of thermoelectric generators that produce electricity based on heat from exhaust gas has begun. The main thing when developing an energy recovery device is that the device should not be complicated so as not to affect the reliability of the car. That is why the system used the nineteenth-century discovery of Thomas Sibeck, a device that does not require moving parts for electricity production.
The main parts of the system are the heat exchangers on the hot and cold sides of the exhaust system, the thermoelectric material and the system for holding the elements under pressure, in order to achieve the good contact required for the circulation of heat in the thermoelectric generator.
The structure of the thermoelectric module consists of interconnected cells, each of which is composed of a compound of two metals capable of producing electrical voltage. The thermoelectric modules thus formed are packed between the warm side and the cold side of the heat exchanger, from which they are electrically insulated.
The power of a thermoelectric generator depends on the type of thermoelectric material used, the temperature difference between the heated and cooled sides, and the intensity of heat circulating in the generator system.
When installing thermoelectric generators in a vehicle, care must be taken to ensure that it is installed in order to ensure that heat is not used to generate electricity, to avoid the disturbance of the exhaust gas treatment to meet environmental standards and to greatly increase the car's aspiration.
Major manufacturers, such as BMW and Volkswagen, became interested in the system. Experiments have shown that the utilization rate of a thermoelectric generator is two percent at 200 watts.
The focus of further development will be on increasing the utilization rate by finding new thermoelectric materials and optimizing the heat transfer in the system. Car manufacturers predict that 600W will be achieved with the potential to reduce fuel consumption by 5 percent when driving on a highway.
Conductors at different temperatures
A thermoelectric generator uses a simple natural phenomenon in which one pair of electrical conductors made of different materials generates electrical voltage if the arms of different materials are held at different temperatures. Such a pair of conductors can also act as a heat pump if electricity flows through them.
Prepared by: B.Sc. Milan Popović
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